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Anomalies of teeth and enamel

Anomalies are called congenital and acquired deviations from the normal amount, color, location, timing of eruption and tooth structure. They are found quite often: according to various sources, every second child and every third adult have them.

In addition   imperfection, tooth abnormalities cause problems with chewing food, they often hurt and are affected by caries.

What are tooth abnormalities?
Quantitative: there are more than 32 teeth (hyperdontia) or less than 32 (hypodontia), or there are no teeth at all – adentia;
Size: excessively large (macrodentia) or small (microdentia) teeth;
Shape: teeth are wedge-shaped, tenon-shaped, with a shortened or flattened crown, barrel-shaped (Fournier teeth), with a groove (Hetchinson’s teeth) or cone-shaped (Pfluger teeth);
Location: the teeth are out of place, upturned, grow very high or low, deployed around its axis, etc.
What are the anomalies of enamel?
Anomalies of enamel are classified by its number on the teeth. Hyperplasia is distinguished: this is a condition in which there is an excessive amount of enamel, and tuberous growths (so-called “enamel pearls”) appear on the surface of the teeth.

During intrauterine growth and development, dysplasia (uneven distribution) of enamel and hypoplasia (lack) of enamel can occur.

These conditions lead to increased sensitivity of the teeth, chips, pain. Teeth with hypoplasia can have a different color, grooves, indentations and are more often affected by caries, pulpitis.

Why do tooth and enamel abnormalities appear?
All groups of causes can be divided into congenital and acquired.

Congenital causes include:

Genetic: genes of anomalies are inherited. Such diseases include cleft of the upper lip (the so-called “cleft lip”), soft and hard palate (the so-called “cleft palate”), alveolar bone. The teeth are affected by Sherchevsky-Turner, Seckel, Waardenburg, Down syndromes, with hereditary syndrome of imperfect osteogenesis and many others.
Endocrine: a violation of the secretion of thyroid and parathyroid hormones, the pituitary gland and adrenal cortex affect calcium metabolism, teething time and number of teeth. Hormones can cause jaw osteoporosis, accelerate or slow down the growth of teeth and gums, and cause enamel pathology.
Acquired reasons are:

Intrauterine: cord entanglement, fetal hypoxia, toxicosis, intrauterine infections, asphyxia, intrauterine injuries, the presence of amniotic constrictions, a long anhydrous period.
After birth, the condition of the baby’s teeth can be affected by rickets, lack of calcium and protein in the diet, prolonged use of nipples, finger sucking, lack of solid food in the diet, etc. Injuries, excessive tooth buds or deep caries, affecting not only the milk tooth, but also the rudiment radical can lead to abnormalities in the number of teeth.
Adults can earn anomalies in enamel and teeth with enamel cracks, prolonged smoking, fluorosis, tooth injuries, poor-quality fillings, etc.
Complications of tooth and enamel abnormalities
Some abnormalities in the development of teeth do not require treatment. These include, for example, enamel hyperplasia. Some abnormalities are asymptomatic, others can cause tooth sensitivity, frequent caries.

Anomalies of teeth and enamel lead to the development of malocclusion. The teeth can grow crowded, cracks appear between the teeth (diastema), the dentition becomes asymmetric, etc.

Irregularly shaped teeth are also worried for aesthetic reasons: because of them, socialization worsens, complexes arise.

Treatment
The decision about whether to treat abnormalities of the teeth and enamel is made by the dentist. After examining the oral cavity, he can prescribe an orthopantomogram, x-ray of the skull in two projections or an MRI of the jaw. The overall situation will be clearly visible in the picture. All tooth abnormalities require a delicate and individual approach.

Therapeutic methods. To restore the enamel, methods of remineralization and restoration of filling materials are used.

Orthodontic methods. The use of plates, braces, mouth guards, trainers to form the correct bite in children, removable and fixed orthodontic appliances.

Surgical methods. Removing improperly growing, extra teeth and replacing them with dentures (crowns, veneers, partial or full bridges, etc.) and dental implants.

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