How long does swelling last after dental implants?
So, the implantation is over! Anxiety and excitement behind, and now, finally, the patient looks at himself in the mirror. As a rule, a new perfect smile causes a feeling…

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Sunny Vitamin. What scientists hide
Vitamin D is conditionally assigned to the group of vitamins, in fact it is a fat-soluble prohormonal steroid that is involved in endocrine, paracrine and autocrine regulation [Vanchinathan, Lim 2012].…

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Better to see once! The importance of real-time visual control for a cosmetologist
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Cosmetic chemistry, genetics and skin melanoma: recent discoveries of scientists

Perhaps the methods for treating skin melanoma will soon change – at a meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS), bioengineers presented a special skin patch.

It should act as a vehicle in targeted therapy for melanoma. Researchers promise that melanoma medications will be delivered to the deeper layers of the skin within one minute.

Today, syringes are used to deliver drugs, but for some patients the method is too painful, which leads to patients refusing treatment.

Scientists hope that their development will solve this problem.

The patch has a unique chemical coating and mode of action, which allows you to attach it to the skin for just a minute, while maintaining the delivery of a therapeutic dose of the drug. The patch caused a strong antibody response in mice, and we hope that an immune response will be observed on human skin.
noted one of the participants in the research group Yangpu Hye
The patch is made by the method of layer-by-layer (LbL) coating. Each patch layer is coated with molecules with alternating positive and negative charges.

While it is planned to deliver a vaccine against melanoma with the help of such plasters, in the future, if the tests are successful, the scope will be expanded.

Cream structure
Cosmetic chemistry: new data on the structure of the cream
Another discovery at the ACS meeting – researchers Delaram Ahmadi and David Barlow first looked at the molecular structure of the cream and lotion – and what they saw was not at all what they expected.

If we can understand the chemical microstructure of the cream and correlate it with the structure of the skin, then perhaps we can better repair the damaged skin barrier
Delaram Ahmadi
Now, authors of cosmetic chemistry books and manufacturers of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry will have to refresh pages and recalculate formulas.

The stability and clinical properties of the cream formula are determined by its fundamental structure <…> We found that in textbooks the picture of the cream structure is described very approximately
David Barlow, Ph.D
According to Barlow, manufacturers mainly determine the structure of emulsions by indirect measurements. But his group used X-ray and neutron scattering methods to determine how the ingredients were distributed.

For analysis, a cream (oil in water emulsion) with several components from the British Pharmacopoeia, the main document in the EU countries, which is used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, was selected, namely:

two auxiliary surfactants,
surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulfate),
preservative diol.
After replacing each ingredient with heavier isotope versions and scattering, scientists determined the location of each ingredient and the compound they formed in the cream.

The result is unusual.

According to scientists, the usual scheme of the composition of the cream as a layering of lamellae, or membranes, of surfactants and auxiliary surfactants that support oil droplets dispersed in water (or vice versa) turned out to be different.

As expected, auxiliary surfactants were present in the membrane layers, but there was no surfactant!

In addition, a preservative was not found in the water layer, where scientists have always assumed that it should be. In fact, he ended up in lamellas.

Ahmadi believes that creams can be self-preservatives.

Now the team is going to conduct a computer simulation to determine how the preservative was in the membrane layer and what it means globally.

Harmful facial lotions
Face lotion: harm or benefit?
Another study of the skin barrier has completed at the University of California at San Francisco.

Dermatology professor Peter Elias, who back in the 1980s developed the skin model as a “protective brick,” believes that not all lotions are useful, especially for people with sensitive skin.

The Elias model was built on the following basic “whales”:

Corneocytes are dead cells on the surface of the skin. They are just “bricks”.
Membrane shells. They surrounded and fastened corneocytes. Consist of three lipids: cholesterol, ceramides and fatty acids.
It is important that these three lipids are present in approximately equal proportions equal to the number of molecules. When this ratio is broken, the membrane membranes do not completely fill the space between the cells. And then instead of a brick wall you get something similar to Swiss cheese, but that’s not what you need
Peter Elias
According to Elias, moisturizers are designed to create a layer that protects the skin from overdrying, which is good for normal skin. But the wrong proportions or pH of such products can alter the natural acidity of the skin.

And this leads to the fact that lipids cease to be produced in the correct proportions.

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