Anomalies are called congenital and acquired deviations from the normal amount, color, location, timing of eruption and tooth structure. They are found quite often: according to various sources, every second child and every third adult have them.
In addition imperfection, tooth abnormalities cause problems with chewing food, they often hurt and are affected by caries.
What are tooth abnormalities?
Quantitative: there are more than 32 teeth (hyperdontia) or less than 32 (hypodontia), or there are no teeth at Continue reading
Vitamin D is conditionally assigned to the group of vitamins, in fact it is a fat-soluble prohormonal steroid that is involved in endocrine, paracrine and autocrine regulation [Vanchinathan, Lim 2012].
Synthesis of Vitamin D in the Skin
According to the International Lighting Engineering Commission (MSC), effective radiation (i.e., the effectiveness of each wavelength for the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin) covers the spectral range of 255–330 nm with a maximum of about 295 nm (UVB). Exposure to UV light, which induces redness of the skin at a minimum erythema dose for 15– Continue reading
Skin aging is the first visually significant sign of involutional changes occurring in the body.
There are two main types of aging: chronological and photoaging (external), although recently such a division is becoming less common. At the same time, much attention is paid to the so-called exposure factors – a complex of different effects on the human body from the moment of birth and throughout life.
Chronological aging (according to Zouboulis C., Makrantonaki E., 2010) is characterized by:
10–50% reduction in the total thickness of the epidermis
atrophy of the prickly layer,
reduction in size and flattening of the cells of the basal layer
decreased mitotic activity of basal keratinocytes
decrease in lipid renewal processes
flattening of the dermoepidermal compound Continue reading